Urinary Tract Infenctions (UTIs)

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A Urinary tract infection (UTIs) is a problem that mainly affects the discharge of urine when a person gets in contact with bacteria that finds its way into the blood stream and the bacteria goes to the urethra (urine tubes).
Bacterial infection is usually acquired by the ascending route from the urethra to the bladder, it disrupts normal flow or incomplete emptying of bladder and this may make the infection to proceed to the kidney and occasionally bacteria infect the urinary tract which may invade the blood stream to cause septicemia.
A UTI manifests in any of the four ways; Cystitis (bladder), Prostatitis (prostrate), Urethritis (urethra), Pyelonephritis (kidney).The main causes of UTI are urinary pathogens that originate from rectal flora.
These being: Escherichia coli which caused about 80%, Staph. Saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Other organisms include (very rare): Candida spp., and Histoplasma capsulatum (fungi); Trichomonas vaginalis (protozoa) and S. haematobium (flukes) These can be acquired at home (community) or at the hospital, while working or admitted.
The common risk factors include; being female, pregnancy, renal stones, prostrate hypertrophy, neurogenic bladder, diabetes, Immunosuppression, Increasing age and presence of urinary catheter.
Signs and symptoms are; burning pain on passing urine, the urgent need to pass urine, presence of increased WBCs or pus cells in urine, presence of increased bacteria in urine or presence of increased Red Blood Cells in urine) On the other hand, the body has certain techniques it tries to use to protect itself from a UTIs such as: the pH of urine, Chemical content and Flushing mechanism of urineNext week we shall look at diagnosis, management and prevention of UTIs
By McLawrence Phiri
(+260973 694 482)
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